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Sadness Metaphors and Metonymies in Turkish Body Part Idioms

Yıl 2019, Cilt 30, Sayı 2, 273 - 294, 26.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.18492/dad.591347

Öz

This study examines the conceptualizations of the negative emotion sadness in Turkish body part idioms. More specifically, it addresses two main problems: (i) distribution of the body part terms used in idioms to express sadness, and (ii) conceptual metaphors and metonymies underlying the body part idioms that express sadness. The data of the study includes the idioms, which contain body part terminologies and communicate sadness. Conceptual metaphors and metonymies were identified following Barcelona (1997) and Kövecses (2000). The findings reveal that the body parts heart (yürek, kalp) and liver/lung (ciğer) are more productive in Turkish for the conceptualization of sadness. Among the conceptual mappings identified, physical damage is the most typical one with the highest number of linguistic items. Turkish data provide insights on the cultural-cognitive model of sadness, as well as on the embodied nature of emotions.

Kaynakça

  • Aksoy, Ö. A. (1984). Deyimler sözlüğü [Dictionary of idioms]. (4th ed.). Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları.
  • Ayto, J. (2006). Idioms. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (2nd ed.), (pp. 518-521). London: Elsevier Pergam
  • Barcelona, A. (1986). On the concept of depression in American English: A cognitive approach. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses, 12, 7-33.
  • Barcelona, A. (1997). Clarifying and applying the notions of metaphor and metonymy within cognitive linguistics. Atlantis, 19(1), 21-48
  • Çetinkaya, B. (2006). Türkiye Türkçesinde mutluluk ve üzüntü göstergeleri. (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). Gazi University, Ankara.
  • Çotuksöken, Y. (2004). Türkçe atasözleri ve deyimler sözlüğü [Turkish dictionary of proverbs and idioms]. İstanbul: Toroslu
  • Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. Fort Worth, TX, US: Harcourt College Publishers.
  • Damasio, A. (2018). The strange order of things: Life, feeling and the making of cultures. New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2005). Why it hurts to be left out? The neurocognitive overlap between physical and social pain. In K. D. Williams, J. P. Forgas & W. von Hippel (Eds.), The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection and bullying (pp. 109-127). New York/Hove: Psychology Press.
  • Ekman, P. (1999). Basic emotions. In T. Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 45-60). West Sussex: John Wiley& Sons.
  • Esenova, O. (2011). Metaphorical conceptualisation of anger, fear and sadness in English. (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). The Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest.
  • Gibbs, R. W. (2005). Embodiment and cognitive science. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gibbs, R. W. (2007). Idioms and formulaic language. In D. Gearearts & H. Cuykens (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of cognitive linguistics (pp. 697-725). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gönen, S. (2005). Efsanelerde kara renginin görünümü. Selçuk Üniversitesi Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi, 17, 225-236.
  • Ibarretxe-Antuñano, I. (2008). Guts, heart and liver: The conceptualization of internal organs in Basque. In F. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu, & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp. 103-130). Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin/New York.
  • Izard, C. E. (1991). The psychology of emotions. New York/London: Plenum Press.
  • Kövecses, Z. (1990). Emotion concepts. New York: Springer.
  • Kövecses, Z. (1991). Happiness: A definitional effort. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 6(1), 29-46.
  • Kövecses, Z. (2000). Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kövecses, Z. (2013). The Metaphor-Metonymy Relationship: Correlation Metaphors Are Based on Metonymy. Metaphor and Symbol, 28(2), 75-88.
  • Kövecses, Z. (2015). Where metaphors come from: Reconsidering context in metaphor. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Lakoff, G, Espenson, J., & Schwarts, A. (1991). Second draft copy: Master metaphor list. Retrieved from http://araw.mede.uic.edu/~alansz/me taphor/METAPHORLIST.pdf
  • Maalej, Z. A. (2008). The heart and cultural embodiment in Tunisian Arabic. In F. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp. 395-428). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Moradi, M. R., & Mashak, S. P. (2013). A comparative and contrastive study of sadness conceptualization in Persian and English. English Linguistics Research, 2(1), 107-112.
  • Ortony, A., Clore, G. L., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. Canada: Cambridge University Press.
  • Parlatır, İ. (2011). Deyimler [Idioms]. Ankara: Yargı Yayınevi.
  • Pauli, P., Wiedemann, G., & Nickola, M. (1999). Pain sensitivity, cerebral laterality, and negative affect. Pain, 80(1–2), 359–364.
  • Püsküllüoğlu, A. (2006). Türkçe deyimler sözlüğü [Turkish dictionary of idioms] (3rd ed.). Ankara: Arkadaş.
  • Sharifian, F. (2003). On cultural conceptualizations. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3(3), 187-207.
  • Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061-1086.
  • Siahaan, P. (2008). Did he break your heart or your liver? A contrastive study on metaphorical concepts from the source domain organ in English and in Indonesian. In F. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp. 45-74). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter
  • Solomon, R. C., & Stone, L. D. (2002). On “positive” and “negative” emotions. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 32(4), 417-435.
  • Stearns, C. Z. (1993). Sadness. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds), Handbook of emotions (pp. 547–562). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Stefanovich, A. (2006). Words and their metaphors: A corpus-based approach. In A. Stefanivoch, & S. T. Gries (Eds), Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy (pp. 63-105). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Şahin, H. (2004). Türkçede organ isimleriyle kurulmuş deyimler [Idioms with organ names in Turkish]. Bursa: Uludağ Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Tissari, H. (2008). On the concept of sadness: Looking at words in contexts derived from corpora. In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (Ed.), Corpus linguistics, computer tools, and applications - State of the art (pp. 291-308). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
  • Turkish Language Institution Online Dictionary of Proverbs and Idioms. Retrieved from http://www.tdk.gov.tr/index.php?option=com_atasozle ri&view=atasozleri
  • Van Trào, N. (2014). A Cross-cultural analysis of the metaphorical conceptualization of sadness in Modern English and Vietnamese. Journal of Science: Foreign Studies, 30(2), 33-47.
  • Wierzbicka, A. (1995). Everyday conceptions of emotion: A semantic perspective. In J. A. Russell, J. M. Fernandez-Dols, A. S. R. Manstead, & J. C. Wellenkamp (Eds.), Everyday Conceptions of Emotion: An Introduction to the Psychology, Anthropology and Linguistics of Emotion (pp. 17-47). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Wierzbicka, A. (1999). Emotions across languages and cultures: Diversity and universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Yu, N. (2002). Body and emotion: Body parts in Chinese expression of emotion. Pragmatics and Cognition, 10(1/2), 341-367.
  • Yu, N. (2009). The Chinese heart in a cognitive perspective: Culture, body and language. Berlin/NY: Mouton de Gruyter.

Türkçe Beden Bölümü İçeren Deyimlerde Üzüntü Eğretilemeleri ve Düzdeğişmeceleri

Yıl 2019, Cilt 30, Sayı 2, 273 - 294, 26.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.18492/dad.591347

Öz

Bu çalışma Türkçede beden bölümü içeren deyimlerde olumsuz bir duygu türü olan üzüntüye ait kavramsallaşmaları incelemektedir. Daha belirgin olarak, çalışmada iki temel problem irdelenmektedir: (i) üzüntü ifade eden deyimlerdeki beden bölümü sözcüklerinin dağılımı, ve (ii) üzüntü ifade eden deyimlerin altında yatan kavramsal eğretileme ve düzdeğişmecelerin belirlenmesi. Çalışmanın veri tabanı beden bölümü terimleri içeren ve üzüntü ifade eden deyimlerden oluşmaktadır. Kavramsal eğretilemeler ve düzdeğişmecelerin belirlenmesinde Barcelona (1997) ve Kövecses (2000) takip edilmiştir. Bulgular, Türkçede beden bölümü sözcükleri ‘yürek’, ‘kalp’ ve ‘ciğer’in üzüntünün kavramsallaşmasında daha üretken olduğunu göstermektedir. Belirlenen kavramsal eşleşmelerden en fazla dilsel birimle fiziki hasar en tipik eşleşmedir. Türkçe veriler, üzüntüye ait kültürel-bilişsel bir modele olduğu kadar duyguların bedenleşmiş doğasına da içgörü sağlamaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Aksoy, Ö. A. (1984). Deyimler sözlüğü [Dictionary of idioms]. (4th ed.). Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları.
  • Ayto, J. (2006). Idioms. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (2nd ed.), (pp. 518-521). London: Elsevier Pergam
  • Barcelona, A. (1986). On the concept of depression in American English: A cognitive approach. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses, 12, 7-33.
  • Barcelona, A. (1997). Clarifying and applying the notions of metaphor and metonymy within cognitive linguistics. Atlantis, 19(1), 21-48
  • Çetinkaya, B. (2006). Türkiye Türkçesinde mutluluk ve üzüntü göstergeleri. (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). Gazi University, Ankara.
  • Çotuksöken, Y. (2004). Türkçe atasözleri ve deyimler sözlüğü [Turkish dictionary of proverbs and idioms]. İstanbul: Toroslu
  • Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. Fort Worth, TX, US: Harcourt College Publishers.
  • Damasio, A. (2018). The strange order of things: Life, feeling and the making of cultures. New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2005). Why it hurts to be left out? The neurocognitive overlap between physical and social pain. In K. D. Williams, J. P. Forgas & W. von Hippel (Eds.), The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection and bullying (pp. 109-127). New York/Hove: Psychology Press.
  • Ekman, P. (1999). Basic emotions. In T. Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 45-60). West Sussex: John Wiley& Sons.
  • Esenova, O. (2011). Metaphorical conceptualisation of anger, fear and sadness in English. (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). The Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest.
  • Gibbs, R. W. (2005). Embodiment and cognitive science. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gibbs, R. W. (2007). Idioms and formulaic language. In D. Gearearts & H. Cuykens (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of cognitive linguistics (pp. 697-725). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gönen, S. (2005). Efsanelerde kara renginin görünümü. Selçuk Üniversitesi Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi, 17, 225-236.
  • Ibarretxe-Antuñano, I. (2008). Guts, heart and liver: The conceptualization of internal organs in Basque. In F. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu, & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp. 103-130). Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin/New York.
  • Izard, C. E. (1991). The psychology of emotions. New York/London: Plenum Press.
  • Kövecses, Z. (1990). Emotion concepts. New York: Springer.
  • Kövecses, Z. (1991). Happiness: A definitional effort. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 6(1), 29-46.
  • Kövecses, Z. (2000). Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kövecses, Z. (2013). The Metaphor-Metonymy Relationship: Correlation Metaphors Are Based on Metonymy. Metaphor and Symbol, 28(2), 75-88.
  • Kövecses, Z. (2015). Where metaphors come from: Reconsidering context in metaphor. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Lakoff, G, Espenson, J., & Schwarts, A. (1991). Second draft copy: Master metaphor list. Retrieved from http://araw.mede.uic.edu/~alansz/me taphor/METAPHORLIST.pdf
  • Maalej, Z. A. (2008). The heart and cultural embodiment in Tunisian Arabic. In F. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp. 395-428). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Moradi, M. R., & Mashak, S. P. (2013). A comparative and contrastive study of sadness conceptualization in Persian and English. English Linguistics Research, 2(1), 107-112.
  • Ortony, A., Clore, G. L., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. Canada: Cambridge University Press.
  • Parlatır, İ. (2011). Deyimler [Idioms]. Ankara: Yargı Yayınevi.
  • Pauli, P., Wiedemann, G., & Nickola, M. (1999). Pain sensitivity, cerebral laterality, and negative affect. Pain, 80(1–2), 359–364.
  • Püsküllüoğlu, A. (2006). Türkçe deyimler sözlüğü [Turkish dictionary of idioms] (3rd ed.). Ankara: Arkadaş.
  • Sharifian, F. (2003). On cultural conceptualizations. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3(3), 187-207.
  • Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061-1086.
  • Siahaan, P. (2008). Did he break your heart or your liver? A contrastive study on metaphorical concepts from the source domain organ in English and in Indonesian. In F. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp. 45-74). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter
  • Solomon, R. C., & Stone, L. D. (2002). On “positive” and “negative” emotions. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 32(4), 417-435.
  • Stearns, C. Z. (1993). Sadness. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds), Handbook of emotions (pp. 547–562). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Stefanovich, A. (2006). Words and their metaphors: A corpus-based approach. In A. Stefanivoch, & S. T. Gries (Eds), Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy (pp. 63-105). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Şahin, H. (2004). Türkçede organ isimleriyle kurulmuş deyimler [Idioms with organ names in Turkish]. Bursa: Uludağ Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Tissari, H. (2008). On the concept of sadness: Looking at words in contexts derived from corpora. In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (Ed.), Corpus linguistics, computer tools, and applications - State of the art (pp. 291-308). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
  • Turkish Language Institution Online Dictionary of Proverbs and Idioms. Retrieved from http://www.tdk.gov.tr/index.php?option=com_atasozle ri&view=atasozleri
  • Van Trào, N. (2014). A Cross-cultural analysis of the metaphorical conceptualization of sadness in Modern English and Vietnamese. Journal of Science: Foreign Studies, 30(2), 33-47.
  • Wierzbicka, A. (1995). Everyday conceptions of emotion: A semantic perspective. In J. A. Russell, J. M. Fernandez-Dols, A. S. R. Manstead, & J. C. Wellenkamp (Eds.), Everyday Conceptions of Emotion: An Introduction to the Psychology, Anthropology and Linguistics of Emotion (pp. 17-47). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Wierzbicka, A. (1999). Emotions across languages and cultures: Diversity and universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Yu, N. (2002). Body and emotion: Body parts in Chinese expression of emotion. Pragmatics and Cognition, 10(1/2), 341-367.
  • Yu, N. (2009). The Chinese heart in a cognitive perspective: Culture, body and language. Berlin/NY: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Melike BAŞ (Sorumlu Yazar)
AMASYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4104-8719
Türkiye


Nalan BÜYÜKKANTARCIOĞLU
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Aralık 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 30, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Baş, M. & Büyükkantarcıoğlu, N. (2019). Sadness Metaphors and Metonymies in Turkish Body Part Idioms . Dilbilim Araştırmaları Dergisi , 30 (2) , 273-294 . DOI: 10.18492/dad.591347