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D1 ve D2 Arapçada Fiilden Türemiş İsimlerin İşlenmesi: Bir Maskelenmiş Çağrıştırma Deneyi

Year 2023, Volume: 34 Issue: 1, 131 - 155, 20.06.2023
https://doi.org/10.18492/dad.1195380

Abstract

Bu çalışma, anadili (D1) Türkçe/ikinci dili (D2) Arapça olan yetişkinlerin Arapçada fiilden türemiş isimleri nasıl işlediklerini araştırmaktadır. Hint-Avrupa dillerinden farklı olarak, Arapçada kelime türetim süreci kesintili bir şekilde (süreksiz) gerçekleşir. Çekirdek anlamsal bilgiyi taşıyan kök sözcük, sesbilimsel ve biçim-sözdizimsel bilgiyi taşıyan biçimbirimlerle (word pattern) birbirine kenetlenir. Sözcük işleme üzerine yapılan çalışmalar, D1 Arapçada fiilden türemiş karmaşık isimleri (deverbal nouns) ve çekim ekli fiilleri işlerken, D1 konuşanların bu sözcükleri kök ve (yapım/çekim) eklerine ayrıştırarak işlediklerini göstermektedir. Diğer bir deyişle, D1 Arapça konuşanlar çok ekli sözcükleri çevrimiçi işlerken, bütünsel listeleme yerine ayrıştırma yöntemini kullanmaktadırlar. D2’de yapılan çalışmalarda ise, D2 Arapça konuşanların türemiş veya çekimli filleri işlerken bu iki yöntemden hangisini kullandıklarına ilişkin henüz tutarlı bir sonuca varılmadığı gözlenmektedir. Bu çalışma, bir maskelenmiş çağrıştırma deneyi kullanarak, D2 Arapça konuşanların, fiilden türemiş isimleri çevrimiçi işlerken, ayrıştırma ya da bütünsel listeleme yöntemleri arasından hangisini tercih ettiklerini araştırmaktadır. Bu amaçla, D1 Türkçe/D2 Arapça konuşanlar ile D1 Arapça konuşanlara çağrıştırıcılar ve hedef sözcükler arasında biçimbirimsel, yazımsal, ve anlamsal ilişki içeren altı farklı koşulda hazırlanmış bir sözcük değerlendirme testti verilmiştir. Sonuçlar sadece D1 konuşanların çağrıştırıcı ve hedef sözcük arasında biçimbirimsel ilişkinin olduğu koşulda anlamlı çağrışım etkisi olduğunu göstermiştir. Bu bulgular D1 Arapça konuşanların fiilden türemiş isimleri çevrimiçi işlerken, ayrıştırma yöntemini kullanırken, D2 Arapça konuşanların ise bütünsel listeleme yöntemini tercih ettiklerini göstermektedir.

References

  • Anderson, S. R. (1992). A-Morphous morphology. Cambridge University Press.
  • Berent, I., Steriade, D., Lennertz, T. & Vaknin, V. (2007). What we know about what we have never heard: Evidence from perceptual illusions. Cognition, 104, 591–630. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2006.05.015
  • Beth-Feldman, L., Kostić, A., Basnight-Brown, D. M., Filipović Đurđević, D., & Pastizzo, M. J. (2010). Morphological facilitation for regular and irregular verb formations in native and non-native speakers: Little evidence for two distinct mechanisms. Bilingualism Language and Cognition, 13(2), 119-135. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990459
  • Boudelaa S. & Marslen-Wilson W.D. (2004). Allomorphic variation in Arabic: implications for lexical processing and representation. Brain Lang, 90 (1-3), 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00424-3
  • Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (2001). Morphological units in the Arabic mental lexicon. Cognition, 81(1), 65-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(01)00119-6
  • Boudelaa, S., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (2005). Discontinuous morphology in time: Incremental masked priming in Arabic. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20(1-2), 207-260. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960444000106
  • Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (2011). Productivity and priming: Morphemic decomposition in Arabic. Language and Cognitive Processes, 26(4-6), 624-652. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2010.521022
  • Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (2013) Morphological structure in the Arabic mental lexicon: Parallels between Standard and Dialectal Arabic. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28(10), 1453-1473. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2012.719629
  • Boudelaa, S. (2014). Is the Arabic mental lexicon morpheme-based or stem-based? Implications for spoken and written word. In E. Saiegh-Haddad, & R. Joshi (Eds.), Handbook of Arabic literacy (pp. 31-54). Springer.
  • Butterworth, B. (1983). Development, writing and other language processes. Academic Press.
  • Cao, G. (2016). Morphological decomposition in second language word processing. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(1), 209-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0601.28
  • Caramazza, A., Laudanna, A., & Romani, C. (1988). Lexical access and inflectional Morphology. Cognition, 28(3), 297-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(88)90017-0
  • Clahsen, H. (1999). Lexical entries and rules of language: A multidisciplinary study of German inflection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(6), 991-1013. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X99002228
  • Clahsen, H., Balkhair, L., Cunnings, I., & Schutter, J. S. (2012). The Time Course of Morphological Processing in a Second Language. Second Language Research, 29(1), 7-31.
  • Clahsen, H., Felser, C., Neubauer, K., Sato, M., & Silva, R. (2010). Morphological structure in native and nonnative language processing. Language Learning, 60(1), 21-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00550.x
  • Clahsen, H., Rothweiler, M., Woest, A., & Marcus, G. (1992). Regular and irregular inflection in the acquisition of German noun plurals. Cognition, 45(3), 225-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(92)90018-D
  • Clahsen, H., Sonnenstuhl, I., & Blevins, J. (2003). Derivational morphology in the German mental lexicon: A dual-mechanism account. In H. Baayen & R. Schreuder (Eds.), Morphological Structure in Language Processing (pp. 125–155). Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Coughlin, C. & Tremblay, A. (2014). Morphological decomposition in native and non-native French speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(3), 524-542. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000200
  • Çotuksöken, B. & Özkan, K. (2011). Ortaçağ yazıları. Notos Kitap.
  • Diependaele, K., Duñabeitia, J. A., Morris, J., & Keuleers, E. (2011). Fast morphological effects in first and second language word recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 64(4), 344–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2011.01.003
  • Estivalet, G. L. & Meunier, F. E. (2015). Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00004
  • Frauenfelder, U. H. & Schreuder, R. (1992). Constraining psycholinguistic models of morphological processing and representation: The role of productivity. Yearbook of Morphology Yearbook of Morphology 1991, 165-183.
  • Forster, K. I., & Azuma, T. (2000). Masked priming for prefixed words with bound stems: Does submit prime permit? Language and Cognitive Processes, 15 (4-5), 539-561. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960050119698
  • Forster, K. I., & Davis, C. (1984). Repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10(4), 680-698. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.10.4.680
  • Freynik, S., Gor, K., & O’Rourke, P. (2017). L2 processing of Arabic derivational morphology. The Mental Lexicon, 12(1), 21-50. https://doi.org/10.1075/ml.12.1.02fre
  • Gor, K., & Jackson, S. (2013). Morphological decomposition and lexical access in a native and second language: aAnesting doll effect. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28 (7), 1065-1091. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2013.776696
  • Göksel, A. (1998). Linearity, focus and the postverbal position in Turkish. In The Mainz meeting proceedings of the seventh international conference on Turkish linguistics (pp. 85-106). Harrassowitz Verlag Wiesbaden.
  • Hahne, A., Mueller, J. L., & Clahsen, H. (2006). Morphological processing in a second language: behavioral and event-related brain potential evidence for storage and decomposition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(1), 121-134. https://doi.org/10.1162/089892906775250067
  • Haspelmath, M. (2002). Understanding morphology. Oxford University Press.
  • Harley, H. & Noyer, R. (1999). Distributed morphology. Glot International, 4, 3-9. Hélène Giraudo, Serena Dal Maso. The notion of entrenchment: A psycholinguistic experiment on L1 and L2 processing of morphologically complex words. Secondo Convegno Interannuale della Societa Di Linguistica Italiana, May 2014, Bolzano, Italy.
  • Jacob, G., Heyer, V., & Veríssimo, J. (2017). Aiming at the same target: a masked priming study directly comparing derivation and inflection in the second language. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(6), 619-637. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006916688333
  • Kırkıcı, B. & Clasen, H. (2013). Inflection and derivation in native and non-native language processing: Masked priming experiments on Turkish. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(4), 776-791. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000648
  • Koda, K. (2000). Cross-linguistic variations in L2 morphological awareness. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21(3), 297-320. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400003015
  • Kunduracı, A. (2013). Turkish noun-noun compounds: A process-based paradigmatic account. [PhD. Dissertation]. University of Calgary, Alberta.
  • Kunduracı, A. (2019). The paradigmatic aspect of compounding and derivation. Journal of Linguistics, 55(3), 563-609. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226718000518
  • Kutlay N. & Gürel A. (2017) processing of inflectional and derivational morphology in the second language. 27th EUROSLA, Reading University, England.
  • Lieber, R. (2009). Introducing morphology. Cambridge University Press.
  • Marcus, G., Brinkmann, U., Clahsen. H., Wiese, R., Pinker, S. (1995). German inflection: The exception that proves the rule. Cognitive Psychology 29, 189-256. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1995.1015
  • Marslen-Wilson, W.D. (2007). Morphological processes in language comprehension. In M. G. Gaskell (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics (pp. 175-193). Oxford University Press.
  • Matthews, P. (1991). Morphology. Cambridge University Press.
  • Neubauer, K. & Clahsen, H. (2009). Decomposition of inflected words in a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 31(3), 403-435. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263109090354
  • Pinker, S. & Prince, A. (1988). On language and connectionism: Analysis of a parallel distributed processing model of language acquisition. Cognition, 28 (1-2), 73-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(88)90032-7
  • Pinker, S. & Prince, A. (1994). Regular and irregular morphology and the psychological status of rules of grammar. Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society.
  • Prasada, S., Pinker, S. (1993). Generalisation of regular and irregular morphological patterns. Language and Cognitive Processes, 8, 1-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690969308406948
  • Reifegerste, J., Elin, K., & Clahsen, H. (2019). Persistent differences between native speakers and late bilinguals: Evidence from inflectional and derivational processing in older speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 22(3), 425–440. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728918000615
  • Rothweiler, M., Chilla, S., & Clahsen, H. (2012). Subject verb agreement in specific language impairment: a study of monolingual and bilingual German-speaking children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 39–57. https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672891100037X
  • Ryding, K. C. (2005). A reference grammar of modern Standard Arabic. Cambridge University Press.
  • Silva, R. (2008). Morphological processing in a second language: Evidence from psycholinguistic experiments. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Essex.
  • Silva, R. & Clahsen, H. (2008). Morphologically complex words in L1 and L2 processing: Evidence from masked priming experiments in English. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(2), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728908003404
  • Sonnenstuhl, I., Eisenbeiss, S., & Clahsen, H. (1999). Morphological priming in the German mental lexicon. Cognition, 72(3), 203-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00033-5
  • Taft, M. & Forster, K. I. (1975). Lexical storage and retrieval of prefixed words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal
  • Behavior, 14(6), 638-647. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(75)80051-X
  • Ullman, M. T. (1999). Acceptability ratings of regular and irregular past-tense forms: evidence for a dual-system model of language from word frequency and phonological neighbourhood effects. Language and Cognitive
  • Processes, 14(1), 47-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/016909699386374
  • Ullman, M. T. (2004). Contributions of memory circuits to language: The Declarative/Procedural Model. Cognition, 92, 231–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2003.10.008
  • Ullman, M. T. (2005). A cognitive neuroscience perspective on second language acquisition: the declarative/procedural model. Mind and Context in Adult Second Language Acquisition, 141-178.
  • Yule, G. (2010). The study of language. Cambridge University Press.

Accessing Deverbal Nouns in L1 and L2 Arabic: A Masked-Priming Experiment

Year 2023, Volume: 34 Issue: 1, 131 - 155, 20.06.2023
https://doi.org/10.18492/dad.1195380

Abstract

The current study examines how non-native speakers process deverbal nouns of Arabic. Unlike Indo-European languages, the word-formation process in Arabic occurs in a discontinuous manner. The root morpheme (carrying the core semantic information) interlocks in the word pattern morpheme (which holds the phonological and morpho-syntactic information). Research on Arabic shows that Arabic native speakers decompose derived and inflected (deverbal nouns and verbs) complex words during lexical processing. Priming studies on word processing did not appear to have consistent findings on whether L2 speakers decompose or fully list the complex forms; Using a masked-priming experiment, this study examined whether native and non-native speakers of Arabic decompose derived words, particularly, deverbal nouns in real-time. We tested a group of L1 Turkish /L2 Arabic learners and L1 Arabic speakers on six experimental conditions in which the relationship between prime and target is either morphological, orthographic, or semantic. The results indicated priming effects in the morphological conditions for native speakers, but not for non-native speakers. This shows that native speakers decompose deverbal nouns into their word patterns and root morphemes whereas non-native speakers list them as whole forms during online processing. These findings support the claim that L1 and L2 use different strategies in real-time processing of derived words.

References

  • Anderson, S. R. (1992). A-Morphous morphology. Cambridge University Press.
  • Berent, I., Steriade, D., Lennertz, T. & Vaknin, V. (2007). What we know about what we have never heard: Evidence from perceptual illusions. Cognition, 104, 591–630. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2006.05.015
  • Beth-Feldman, L., Kostić, A., Basnight-Brown, D. M., Filipović Đurđević, D., & Pastizzo, M. J. (2010). Morphological facilitation for regular and irregular verb formations in native and non-native speakers: Little evidence for two distinct mechanisms. Bilingualism Language and Cognition, 13(2), 119-135. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990459
  • Boudelaa S. & Marslen-Wilson W.D. (2004). Allomorphic variation in Arabic: implications for lexical processing and representation. Brain Lang, 90 (1-3), 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00424-3
  • Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (2001). Morphological units in the Arabic mental lexicon. Cognition, 81(1), 65-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(01)00119-6
  • Boudelaa, S., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (2005). Discontinuous morphology in time: Incremental masked priming in Arabic. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20(1-2), 207-260. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960444000106
  • Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (2011). Productivity and priming: Morphemic decomposition in Arabic. Language and Cognitive Processes, 26(4-6), 624-652. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2010.521022
  • Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (2013) Morphological structure in the Arabic mental lexicon: Parallels between Standard and Dialectal Arabic. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28(10), 1453-1473. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2012.719629
  • Boudelaa, S. (2014). Is the Arabic mental lexicon morpheme-based or stem-based? Implications for spoken and written word. In E. Saiegh-Haddad, & R. Joshi (Eds.), Handbook of Arabic literacy (pp. 31-54). Springer.
  • Butterworth, B. (1983). Development, writing and other language processes. Academic Press.
  • Cao, G. (2016). Morphological decomposition in second language word processing. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(1), 209-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0601.28
  • Caramazza, A., Laudanna, A., & Romani, C. (1988). Lexical access and inflectional Morphology. Cognition, 28(3), 297-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(88)90017-0
  • Clahsen, H. (1999). Lexical entries and rules of language: A multidisciplinary study of German inflection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(6), 991-1013. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X99002228
  • Clahsen, H., Balkhair, L., Cunnings, I., & Schutter, J. S. (2012). The Time Course of Morphological Processing in a Second Language. Second Language Research, 29(1), 7-31.
  • Clahsen, H., Felser, C., Neubauer, K., Sato, M., & Silva, R. (2010). Morphological structure in native and nonnative language processing. Language Learning, 60(1), 21-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00550.x
  • Clahsen, H., Rothweiler, M., Woest, A., & Marcus, G. (1992). Regular and irregular inflection in the acquisition of German noun plurals. Cognition, 45(3), 225-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(92)90018-D
  • Clahsen, H., Sonnenstuhl, I., & Blevins, J. (2003). Derivational morphology in the German mental lexicon: A dual-mechanism account. In H. Baayen & R. Schreuder (Eds.), Morphological Structure in Language Processing (pp. 125–155). Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Coughlin, C. & Tremblay, A. (2014). Morphological decomposition in native and non-native French speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(3), 524-542. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000200
  • Çotuksöken, B. & Özkan, K. (2011). Ortaçağ yazıları. Notos Kitap.
  • Diependaele, K., Duñabeitia, J. A., Morris, J., & Keuleers, E. (2011). Fast morphological effects in first and second language word recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 64(4), 344–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2011.01.003
  • Estivalet, G. L. & Meunier, F. E. (2015). Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00004
  • Frauenfelder, U. H. & Schreuder, R. (1992). Constraining psycholinguistic models of morphological processing and representation: The role of productivity. Yearbook of Morphology Yearbook of Morphology 1991, 165-183.
  • Forster, K. I., & Azuma, T. (2000). Masked priming for prefixed words with bound stems: Does submit prime permit? Language and Cognitive Processes, 15 (4-5), 539-561. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960050119698
  • Forster, K. I., & Davis, C. (1984). Repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10(4), 680-698. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.10.4.680
  • Freynik, S., Gor, K., & O’Rourke, P. (2017). L2 processing of Arabic derivational morphology. The Mental Lexicon, 12(1), 21-50. https://doi.org/10.1075/ml.12.1.02fre
  • Gor, K., & Jackson, S. (2013). Morphological decomposition and lexical access in a native and second language: aAnesting doll effect. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28 (7), 1065-1091. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2013.776696
  • Göksel, A. (1998). Linearity, focus and the postverbal position in Turkish. In The Mainz meeting proceedings of the seventh international conference on Turkish linguistics (pp. 85-106). Harrassowitz Verlag Wiesbaden.
  • Hahne, A., Mueller, J. L., & Clahsen, H. (2006). Morphological processing in a second language: behavioral and event-related brain potential evidence for storage and decomposition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(1), 121-134. https://doi.org/10.1162/089892906775250067
  • Haspelmath, M. (2002). Understanding morphology. Oxford University Press.
  • Harley, H. & Noyer, R. (1999). Distributed morphology. Glot International, 4, 3-9. Hélène Giraudo, Serena Dal Maso. The notion of entrenchment: A psycholinguistic experiment on L1 and L2 processing of morphologically complex words. Secondo Convegno Interannuale della Societa Di Linguistica Italiana, May 2014, Bolzano, Italy.
  • Jacob, G., Heyer, V., & Veríssimo, J. (2017). Aiming at the same target: a masked priming study directly comparing derivation and inflection in the second language. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(6), 619-637. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006916688333
  • Kırkıcı, B. & Clasen, H. (2013). Inflection and derivation in native and non-native language processing: Masked priming experiments on Turkish. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(4), 776-791. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000648
  • Koda, K. (2000). Cross-linguistic variations in L2 morphological awareness. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21(3), 297-320. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400003015
  • Kunduracı, A. (2013). Turkish noun-noun compounds: A process-based paradigmatic account. [PhD. Dissertation]. University of Calgary, Alberta.
  • Kunduracı, A. (2019). The paradigmatic aspect of compounding and derivation. Journal of Linguistics, 55(3), 563-609. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226718000518
  • Kutlay N. & Gürel A. (2017) processing of inflectional and derivational morphology in the second language. 27th EUROSLA, Reading University, England.
  • Lieber, R. (2009). Introducing morphology. Cambridge University Press.
  • Marcus, G., Brinkmann, U., Clahsen. H., Wiese, R., Pinker, S. (1995). German inflection: The exception that proves the rule. Cognitive Psychology 29, 189-256. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1995.1015
  • Marslen-Wilson, W.D. (2007). Morphological processes in language comprehension. In M. G. Gaskell (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics (pp. 175-193). Oxford University Press.
  • Matthews, P. (1991). Morphology. Cambridge University Press.
  • Neubauer, K. & Clahsen, H. (2009). Decomposition of inflected words in a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 31(3), 403-435. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263109090354
  • Pinker, S. & Prince, A. (1988). On language and connectionism: Analysis of a parallel distributed processing model of language acquisition. Cognition, 28 (1-2), 73-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(88)90032-7
  • Pinker, S. & Prince, A. (1994). Regular and irregular morphology and the psychological status of rules of grammar. Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society.
  • Prasada, S., Pinker, S. (1993). Generalisation of regular and irregular morphological patterns. Language and Cognitive Processes, 8, 1-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690969308406948
  • Reifegerste, J., Elin, K., & Clahsen, H. (2019). Persistent differences between native speakers and late bilinguals: Evidence from inflectional and derivational processing in older speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 22(3), 425–440. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728918000615
  • Rothweiler, M., Chilla, S., & Clahsen, H. (2012). Subject verb agreement in specific language impairment: a study of monolingual and bilingual German-speaking children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 39–57. https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672891100037X
  • Ryding, K. C. (2005). A reference grammar of modern Standard Arabic. Cambridge University Press.
  • Silva, R. (2008). Morphological processing in a second language: Evidence from psycholinguistic experiments. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Essex.
  • Silva, R. & Clahsen, H. (2008). Morphologically complex words in L1 and L2 processing: Evidence from masked priming experiments in English. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(2), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728908003404
  • Sonnenstuhl, I., Eisenbeiss, S., & Clahsen, H. (1999). Morphological priming in the German mental lexicon. Cognition, 72(3), 203-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00033-5
  • Taft, M. & Forster, K. I. (1975). Lexical storage and retrieval of prefixed words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal
  • Behavior, 14(6), 638-647. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(75)80051-X
  • Ullman, M. T. (1999). Acceptability ratings of regular and irregular past-tense forms: evidence for a dual-system model of language from word frequency and phonological neighbourhood effects. Language and Cognitive
  • Processes, 14(1), 47-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/016909699386374
  • Ullman, M. T. (2004). Contributions of memory circuits to language: The Declarative/Procedural Model. Cognition, 92, 231–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2003.10.008
  • Ullman, M. T. (2005). A cognitive neuroscience perspective on second language acquisition: the declarative/procedural model. Mind and Context in Adult Second Language Acquisition, 141-178.
  • Yule, G. (2010). The study of language. Cambridge University Press.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Linguistics
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Sohaıb ALWAHEIDI 0000-0001-6198-0303

Filiz CELE 0000-0002-1290-9217

Publication Date June 20, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 34 Issue: 1

Cite

APA ALWAHEIDI, S., & CELE, F. (2023). Accessing Deverbal Nouns in L1 and L2 Arabic: A Masked-Priming Experiment. Dilbilim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 34(1), 131-155. https://doi.org/10.18492/dad.1195380